Database Concepts


A database concept can be understand and explained as a collection of information (i.e. meaningful data) or in other words it is a set of inter-related data. Database provides data storage and data retrieval functionality and makes the management of data an easy process. There is countless number of examples for usage of database. Let’s take some examples to understand database.

  1. Your bank account is stored in the database of your bank to maintain your data such as name, contact number, address, transaction history, account summary and lot more.
  2. We all use Facebook to communicate with our friends and get in touch with the outer world. Facebook also stores data of their members such as their friends, activities, messages, etc in its database.

Examples of Database Management Systems – Microsoft Access, MySQL, Microsoft SQL Server, Oracle, File-Maker Pro and lot more.

What is Database Management System?
It is software that enables computer to maintain data or in other words it is a collection of programs which allows its users to access database, query database to manipulate data, representation of the output data.

Characteristics of DBMS are as follows :-

  1. It allows many applications to share the data.
  2. It helps in controlling data redundancy.
  3. The correct, consistent, and inter relationship of data with respect to the application which uses the data leads to the maintenance of integrity of data.
  4. It supports for transaction control and recovery such as update takes place physically after a logical transaction is complete.
  5. It provides tools by which DBA can ensure about the security of the database.

What is a Data Model?
A data model is a conceptual representation of the data structures that are required by a database. The data structures include the data objects, the associations between data objects, and the rules which govern operations on the objects. As the name implies, the data model focuses on what data is required and how it should be organized rather than what operations will be performed on the data. To use a common analogy, the data model is equivalent to an architect’s building plans or Engineers build a model of a car to work out any details before putting it into production.
A data model is independent of hardware or software constraints. Rather than try to represent the data as a database would see it, the data model focuses on representing the data as the user sees it in the “real world”. It serves as a bridge between the concepts that make up real-world events and processes and the physical representation of those concepts in a database.

Different Data Models :-

Data Models
Data Models

What is the difference between Database Management System (DBMS) and Relational Database Management System (RDBMS)?

To update Soon

What is a Table?
A relational database uses relations or two dimensional tables to hold information.
Table is a database object which is used to store data. It consists of columns and rows in which related data is entered collectively. It is also called as Relation or Entity class.

What is a Field?
Table is further broken into smaller entities called fields such as ID, NAME, AGE, and LOCATION.
What is a Column?

It acts as a vertical entity in a table containing all the information of that specific field. It is also known as Attributes of a table.
What is a Row?

It acts as a horizontal entity in a table and contains the information for each column. It is also known as Tuple of a table.

Database Normalization
Many of the databases will be small containing one or two tables at the maximum. But as the database becomes dense, handling it becomes the critical and foremost requirement because at the end what we need is – Fast retrieval of data from the database. So, we need to optimize our database with the help of Normalization.
Normalization is done to attain the following –

  1. Eliminating redundant data.
  2. Ensuring data dependencies make sense.
    Various Normalizations are – 1NF, 2NF, 3NF, 4NF, 5NF.
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